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彩多多2023-01-31 16:05

中共二十大报告传递中国经济确定性******

  (中共二十大·观察)中共二十大报告传递中国经济确定性

  中新社北京10月17日电 (记者 王恩博)确定性,这个当今世界的“稀缺品”,大量体现在中共二十大报告绘制的中国经济蓝图中。提出一系列新观点、新论断的同时,报告也以诸多具有连贯性、一致性的表述,传递出关于中国经济的稳定预期。

  “发展”的地位进一步明确。二十大报告提出,发展是党执政兴国的第一要务。这与十九大报告中“发展是解决中国一切问题的基础和关键”的表述一脉相承。

  幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶,作为一个大国,中国发展中的各项目标都需要财力物力保障,这归根结底要以稳定而可持续的经济发展为支撑。

  2013年至2021年,中国国内生产总值年均增长6.6%,高于同期世界和发展中经济体平均增长水平。这一时期,恩格尔系数降低至30%以下,居民生活水平进一步提高。正是经济实力的大幅提升,让发展成果惠及全体人民成为可能。

  二十大报告强调“高质量发展是全面建设社会主义现代化国家的首要任务”,折射出中共对“发展”的重视一以贯之。“建设现代化产业体系”“加快发展方式绿色转型”等要求,则意味着中国经济将因应形势,不断改进发展“方程式”。

  改革的方向也得到延续。“坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向”,连续两次党代会报告,这个表述一字不差。

  十年来,中国共推出2000多个改革方案,涉及经济社会各领域,涵盖衣、食、住、行、教育、医疗、养老等各方面,十八届三中全会部署的改革任务总体完成,十九大以后部署的新改革任务接续推进。

  如今改革行至中流,剩下的多是“硬骨头”。在推动科技高水平自立自强、建设高标准市场体系、防范化解风险、促进经济社会发展全面绿色转型等方面,尤其如此。

  “把实施扩大内需战略同深化供给侧结构性改革有机结合起来”“加快建设现代化经济体系”“深化农村土地制度改革”……二十大报告中的改革相关部署,多落脚在亟待突破的堵点,以及微观务实的细节。

  这将成为持续激活中国发展潜能的“钥匙”。中国国家发改委体改司副司长蒋毅表示,中国将用足用好改革这个“关键一招”,为经济社会平稳健康发展注入强大动力。

  “开放”的决心有增无减。二十大报告明确“推进高水平对外开放”,在此前“推动形成全面开放新格局”的基础上,中国开放的大门只会越开越大。

  过去十年,共建“一带一路”成为深受欢迎的国际公共产品和国际合作平台,中国成为140多个国家和地区的主要贸易伙伴,货物贸易总额居世界第一,吸引外资和对外投资居世界前列,对外开放的平台更高、范围更宽。

  随着二十大报告进一步提出“稳步扩大规则、规制、管理、标准等制度型开放”“营造市场化、法治化、国际化一流营商环境”“深度参与全球产业分工和合作”,中国对外开放料将走向更深层次、更优格局。

  这无疑是世界的利好。中国人民大学重阳金融研究院高级研究员何伟文认为,中国打开国门,面向全世界合作,将获得广阔发展空间,也将为各国合作共赢提供强大支撑。

  “民生”的思维贯穿始终。“增进民生福祉,提高人民生活品质”,这个历来被中共视作工作出发点、落脚点的议题,在二十大报告中不出意外占据相当篇幅。

  收入是民众最有感的关键指标之一。报告提出,努力提高居民收入在国民收入分配中的比重,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重。“促进机会公平,增加低收入者收入,扩大中等收入群体”的细致要求也被写入其中。中国的“民富”与“国富”已走上同一条轨道。

  当然,随着中国人对美好生活的需求更加丰富、全面,“民生”二字不再是单一领域的概念,更演变成综合性、多向度的载体。由此,“实施就业优先战略”“健全社会保障体系”“推进健康中国建设”等任务,在报告中都得到具体阐述。

  “治国有常,利民为本”,当保障和改善民生从理念到执行层面都得到更好贯彻,中国人的获得感、幸福感、安全感将更加充实、更有保障、更可持续。(完)

彩多多

中新网评:处理核污水绝不是日本自家私事******

  中新网北京1月19日电(蒋鲤)日本政府近日称,将于2023年春夏期间开始向海洋排放经过处理的福岛第一核电站核污水。日本罔顾国内民众及周边国家的屡屡反对,企图将核污水“一倒了之”,把一件关乎全球海洋生态环境和公众健康的事当成了自家私事。

资料图:日本福岛第一核电站。

  2011年,福岛核电站事故发生后,大量放射性物质泄漏到大气层和太平洋,对周围环境造成了难以逆转的伤害,数十万人被迫撤离该地区。时至今日,作为日本邻国之一的韩国仍未解除福岛海鲜禁令。

  日本以核污水存储能力即将达到上限为由,在2021年4月13日,正式决定将福岛第一核电站核污水排入太平洋。过去一年多,日本政府和东京电力公司一直在持续推进核污水排海计划。

  日本政府辩称,这些核污水经多核素处理系统(ALPS)处理后很安全,甚至“可以喝”,这样的表态无疑在愚弄大众。

  事实上,经过处理的核污水仍含有多种放射性物质,核污水一旦排放入海就无法回收,长期来看,将会给海洋生态带来难以估量的潜在威胁,最终危害人类健康。

  因此,核污水排海计划推出后,遭到日本民众强烈反对。日本《朝日新闻》2022年3月公布的问卷调查显示,福岛县、宫城县和岩手县受访的42个市町村长中,约六成反对东京电力公司福岛第一核电站核污水排放入海。日本全国渔业协会联合会也多次申明立场,反对该计划。

  日本政府认为,核污水排海是最便宜、最省事的解决方案,但此举却将周边国家乃至全世界置于核污染风险中。太平洋非日本一家之海,核污水会随着洋流流动,其影响势必会跨越国界,危害周边国家乃至整个国际社会的公共福祉和利益。

  《韩国经济新闻》发文称,相关研究认为,福岛核污水如果排放入海,约7个月后将到达济州等韩国海域,该国水产业和旅游业将遭受相当大的损失。

  德国南极海洋机构也曾发出警告,若日本将所有核污水排入海中,不到半年,整个太平洋都将面临高度辐射威胁,包括远在大洋另一端的美国。太平洋地区人民更是对日本该计划持反对意见。

  日本作为《联合国海洋法公约》缔约国,有义务保护海洋环境。然而,在核污水排海方案的正当性、核污水数据的可靠性、净化装置的有效性、环境影响的不确定性等问题上,日本未能作出科学、可信的说明。

  国际原子能机构技术工作组虽已三次赴日实地考察评估,但尚未就日排海方案的安全性给出结论,并且对日本提出诸多澄清要求和整改意见。在此情况下,日本仍执意推进核污水排海工程建设,这是极不负责任的行为。

  太平洋不是日本的下水道,日本必须正视各方合理关切,在与周边国家等相关利益方和国际原子能机构充分协商后,制定合理的核污水处理方案。日本也要着眼长远,若只顾眼前,执意将核污水排放入海,不仅其自身,周边国家乃至全世界都将为之买单,其后果必将会危害数代人。

  Fukushima water disposal by no means Japan’s own business

  By John Lee

  (ECNS) -- Japan has announced it will release treated wastewater from the wrecked Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the Pacific Ocean this year.

  Although Fukushima wastewater disposal affects global marine ecological environment protection and public health, Japan has turned a deaf ear to domestic and international opposition to dumping the contaminated water into the sea, treating the "global" matter as its own business.

  The Fukushima accident in 2011 had sent large quantities of radiation into the atmosphere and the Pacific Ocean, causing irreversible damage to the surrounding environment, and hundreds of thousands of people were forced to evacuate the area. South Korea still maintains its import ban on Japanese seafood from areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

  On April 13, 2021, Japan announced it had decided to discharge contaminated radioactive wastewater in Fukushima Prefecture into the sea due to dwindling storage space, with the Japanese government and plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings Inc. promoting the release plan over the past year.

  The Japanese government argues that the water treated by an advanced liquid processing system, or ALPS, is safe and drinkable, which is undoubtedly fooling the public.

  In fact, the treated wastewater still includes a variety of radioactive substances and can’t be recycled once discharged into the sea, which will pose a great threat to marine ecology and ultimately endanger human health in the long run.

  Therefore, the discharge plan has been strongly opposed in Japan. According to a questionnaire conducted by The Asahi Shimbun, nearly 60 percent of mayors of 42 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures oppose the discharge plan. The National Fisheries Cooperative Federation of Japan has also repeatedly stated its opposition in public.

  The Japanese government believes that dumping Fukushima wastewater into the sea is the cheapest and most convenient solution, but neighboring countries and even the whole world will be at risk of nuclear pollution.

  The Pacific Ocean doesn’t belong to Japan and the wastewater flow along oceanic currents will surely break boundaries and endanger public welfare and the interests of neighboring countries and even the international community.

  The Korea Economic Daily reported that related research concluded that if contaminated water from Fukushima is released into the ocean, it would only take seven months for the contaminated water to reach the shores of Jeju Island, with the country's aquaculture and tourism suffering considerable losses.

  According to the calculation of a German marine scientific research institute, radioactive materials will spread to most of the Pacific Ocean within half a year from the date of discharge, and the U.S. and Canada will be affected by nuclear pollution. People in the Pacific region also oppose the discharge plan.

  As a participant of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Japan has the obligation of protecting the marine environment.

  However, it hasn’t offered a full and convincing explanation on issues like the legitimacy of the discharge plan, the reliability of data on the nuclear-contaminated water, the efficacy of the treatment system or the uncertainty of environmental impact.

  Though the IAEA has yet to complete a comprehensive review after three investigations in Japan, the Japanese side has been pushing through the approval process for its discharge plan and even started building facilities for the discharge. It is rather irresponsible for Japan to act against public opinion at home and concerns abroad.

  The Pacific Ocean is not a private Japanese sewer. The country must seriously heed the voices of the international community and make a reasonable plan for the Fukushima wastewater disposal after full consultation with stakeholders and international agencies.

  If it only seeks instant interest and insists on discharging the contaminated water into the sea, not only itself, but also its neighboring countries and the entire world will pay for the decision and several generations will be forced to bear the consequence.

 

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